What Does the Philippine Eagle Eat?
What Do Birds Eat

What Does Philippine Eagle Eat? Facts & Survival Strategy

The Philippine Eagle is one of the world’s first and most remarkable bird species. This beautiful bird of prey has the biggest and strongest wingspan of any eagle known to humans. It is also the rarest and most threatened species of eagle in the world, with less than 500 individuals left in their native habitat.

With its bold head, massive talons, and bright plumage, the Philippine Eagle stands out even in a crowd. It has an impressive physical presence—from its large bill to its huge wings that enable it to soar through the sky over long distances—and an equally impressive ability to hunt for prey with swiftness and accuracy.

But as remarkable as this creature may be, what truly sets it apart from other birds of prey is its diet—consisting mainly of mammals such as monkeys, pigs, civets, and deer—and its behavior in feeding.

The Philippine Eagle is an apex predator, relying on its skillful hunting strategies to survive in the wild. As a result, it plays an important ecological role in maintaining balance within its forest home by controlling animal populations that might otherwise become overpopulated.

To understand what makes this endangered species so special requires more than just a basic understanding of its physical characteristics or diet; it requires a knowledge of where it lives and how it behaves under these conditions.

In this article, we will explore the fascinating life story of the mighty Philippine Eagle: its scientific name, common names, appearance and size, feathers and coloration; beak and talons; habitat; nesting habits; behavior; diet; endangered status; and conservation efforts aimed at saving this rare species from extinction.

Introduction & Scientific Description of the Philippine Eagle

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is a critically endangered bird of prey belonging to the family Accipitridae and native to the forests of the Philippines. It was previously known as the Monkey-eating Eagle and is one of the largest eagles in the world. The Philippine Eagle is officially recognized as the national bird of the Philippines.

The adult Philippine Eagle is dark brown, but has a creamy-brown nape, crown and forehead, as well as a shaggy manelike crest that gives it an intriguing look. Its eyes are yellowish-brown, surrounded by a whitish face. It has strong legs with long, powerful yellow or orange talons, and its feet are feathered up to its toes. Its beak is curved with a sharp hooked tip and dark grayish-black in color.

The Philippine Eagles measures up to 40 inches (102 cm) in length and has a wingspan of up to 6 feet (1.8 m). Males weigh approximately 8 to 9 pounds (3.6 – 4 kg), while females can weigh up to 11 pounds (5 kg).

What Does the Philippine Eagle Eat?

The Philippine eagle is a carnivorous raptor and feeds on a wide range of prey, including small mammals, such as monkeys, flying lemurs, palm civets and flying squirrels. It hunts from a perch or by searching dense vegetation and knotholes for food. The majority of its diet consists of mammals, but it also feeds on reptiles, birds and occasionally bats.

Most of the time, Philippine eagles hunt solitarily but are also known to hunt in pairs. They use their keen eyesight to locate potential prey or follow trails of disturbance caused by the movement of prey within the canopy. Once they’ve spotted their target, they swoop down swiftly and accurately in order to capture it.

The Philippine eagle is an expert hunter that has adapted to its environment perfectly. Its diet consists mainly of small mammals because they form an abundant resource in the rainforest and can be easily hunted due to their large size and slow speed.

Physical Features, Size & Coloration of the Philippine Eagle

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is an impressive bird of prey—it widely celebrated as the Philippines’ national bird and is known for its size and distinctive features.

Size & Measurements

This formidable species is large with a body length of 86-102 cm and a wingspan that varies from 184-220 cm. It typically has a weight ranging from 4 to 7 kg, with males being smaller than females.


The Philippine Eagle has a dark face and creamy-brown nape and crown, while the back, vent, and tail are dark brown with white spots. Its chest feathers are light gray while its wings have light gray spans that contrast sharply with its dark flight feathers. Its legs are powerful yellow talons complemented by large feet and sharp curved claws used to catch its prey.

Habitat & Geographic Range of the Philippine Eagle

The Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is endemic to the Philippines and its range consists of eight major islands, including Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Leyte, Mindoro and Negros. They inhabit mainly moist and montane forests and mostly in steep and rugged mountains at elevations up to 1,300 meters.

The primary habitat of this raptor is rainforest, but it can also be found in secondary growth and gallery forest along rivers. It prefers primary growth for its nesting sites, due to the greater number of potential prey species available there. The Philippine Eagle utilizes its environment by flying from one tree top to another in search of prey, including monkeys, pigs and many other large mammals as well as birds.

As an apex predator at the top of the food chain in its native environment, it plays an important role in maintaining natural balance amongst species within its home range.

Behavior & Diet of the Philippine Eagle

The Philippine Eagle is an opportunistic feeder. Their main prey is the Philippine flying lemur, but they will also hunt palm civets, monkeys, snakes, monitor lizards, and sometimes other birds of prey. They may even scavenge carrion if the opportunity presents itself.

As the largest of its kind on earth, a healthy Philippine Eagle can take down considerably large prey such as monkeys and flying squirrels. To do so, they rely on their strong talons and powerful beaks to capture and capture hold of their prey before consuming it. They swallow smaller prey whole while they tear larger ones into pieces before consuming them.

These eagles stay alert for any signs of movement in their surroundings when hunting. On occasion, they will wait in the same area for hours until their quarry arrives. Over time, they have learned to become more efficient hunters by adapting their hunting strategies to take advantage of the available prey in their environment.

The Philippines Eagles are some of the apex predators in the food chain which play an important role in maintaining a balanced ecosystem. This explains why these raptors need to be conserved for future generations to enjoy!

Threats to Its Survival

The Philippine Eagle is classified as Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It is estimated that there are only 400 to 600 adults left in the wild, with fewer than 20 breeding pairs.

The primary threats to this species are habitat destruction and destruction of nesting sites. As the human population continues to grow in the Philippines, more land is cleared for agricultural use, resulting in loss of forests and other critical habitats needed by the eagle. It has also been hunted for its feathers and its young have been taken for sale as pets.

Other threats include secondary poisoning of prey due to widespread chemical use in farming practices and disturbances caused by ecotourism.

In response to these threats, conservation organizations have adopted several strategies for protecting the Philippine Eagle. These include habitat protection through land acquisition, captive breeding programs, education and outreach campaigns targeting local communities, law enforcement efforts to reduce illegal hunting, and research initiatives aimed at understanding the species’ biology and ecology.


A lot of people have questions about the Philippine Eagle, so let’s answer some of the most common ones here.

Is the Philippine Eagle the largest eagle in the world?

No, it is not. The Philippines Eagle is estimated to be between 88-106 cm long and weigh between 4 and 7 kg – smaller than some other large raptors, including the harpy eagle (which can weigh up to 9 kg) and the Steller’s sea eagle (which can reach a wingspan of 2.45 m).

Why is Philippine Eagle in danger?

It is critically endangered – there are an estimated 400-500 individuals left in Luzon, Samar and Mindanao in the wild. It’s threatened by deforestation due to illegal logging, hunting and trapping for food or black market pet trade.

Is Philippine Eagle powerful?

Yes! Its powerful talons help it catch its prey more quickly and easily than other birds of prey. It also has excellent eyesight and hearing, which helps it catch its prey from far away.


The Philippine Eagle is an incredible bird species with incredible physical features, diet and behavior that has adapted to the environment of the rainforests of the Philippines and is an important indicator of the environmental health of the rainforests. However, it is now critically endangered due to rapid deforestation in its natural habitat.

Thankfully, many conservation measures are in place to protect this majestic bird and its habitat, but more needs to be done to ensure that this species remains a part of the Philippine landscape for generations to come.

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